Tabinda Siddiqui

Ms Tabinda Siddique is a Visiting Faculty in the Department of Defence and Strategic Studies at Quaid-i-Azam University and Department of Peace and Conflict Studies, National Defence University, Islamabad.

DOI: http://DOI Number

Keywords: Disinfo Lab, discourse development, media, networking, indirect warfare


After years of research, European Disinformation Lab’s disclosures about fake Indian news networks, targeting Pakistan worldwide is a fresh reminder of the never-ending Indian animosity, demonstrated blatantly off the actual battlefield, through the amalgamation of real and fake networks of propaganda warfare. Disinfo Lab’s findings have highlighted the enduring prevalence and relevance of propaganda warfare as a means and method of indirect warfare. At the same time, these disclosures reiterated the vital part technological progression plays in the dissemination of information/disinformation and the evolution of conflicts and warfare. This paper is an attempt to analyse the causes of enduring Indian hostility towards Pakistan for which it extensively employed the tools of information warfare documented and exposed by the EU Disinfo Lab in 2019 and 2020. This paper contextualises the issue highlighted by the EU Disinfo Lab’s report in light of the evolution of warfare into indirect means and identifies the causes of enduring Indian hostility towards Pakistan. This would help to understand the dynamics behind this Pakistan-centred international war of narratives and perception-building to serve the geopolitical interests of India.

First Published

September 25, 2021

How to Cite

Tabinda Siddiqui, “Indian Chronicles: An Analysis of the Causes of Indian Enmity and the Infrastructure of Hybrid Warfare,” Regional Studies 39, no.3 (Autumn 2021): 3-26,


Volume 39, Issue 3