Waqar Hussain and Khurram Maqsood Ahmad

Waqar Hussain is a student of MPhil at the School of Politics and International Relations in Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.

Mr Khurram Maqsood Ahmad is a PhD Candidate at the National Defence University, Islamabad.

DOI: http://DOI Number

Keywords: Credible minimum deterrence, transparency, NCA, NFU, cold start


The nuclear policies of India and Pakistan are consistent with their longstanding acrimonious relations. This is reflected in their respective nuclear doctrines. Both states also use their nuclear policies to frame their relations with other states regarding development and use of their nuclear weapons. The nature of the Indian and Pakistani nuclear postures reflects their differences in the deployment of nuclear weapons in wartime or peace. Pakistan follows a credible minimum deterrence policy. It relies on maintaining the minimum number of nuclear warheads sufficient to deter India. However, its authorisation process is often criticised. India follows a broader strategy to counter China. It includes the development of missile defence and second-strike capability through sea-based nuclear forces. This contradicts its stance of credible minimum deterrence. The documented Indian nuclear doctrine presents a dichotomy in policies and actions and demonstrates a vague picture of its objectives and goals. The evolution in the nuclear policies of India and Pakistan requires them to elaborate their nuclear doctrines in order to make them transparent and reduce the ambiguities in the operationalisation of their policies

First Published

March 25, 2019

How to Cite

Waqar Hussain and Khurram Maqsood Ahmad, “India-Pakistan Nuclear Doctrines: A Comparative Analysis,”Regional Studies 37, no.1 (Spring 2019):34-61, https://regionalstudies.com.pk/wp/article/india-pakistan-nuclear-doctrines-a-comparative-analysis/


Volume 37, Issue 1