Mehmood Hussain, Syeda Tranum Bashir and Sumara Mehmood

Dr Mehmood Hussain is Assistant Professor in the Department of International Relations at the Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Bagh, Pakistan.

Ms. Syeda Tranum Bashir holds a Master’s degree in International Relations from the Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Bagh, Pakistan.

Ms. Sumara Mehmood is a PhD candidate in Educational Leadership and Management in the Faculty of Education at the Southwest University, China.

DOI: http://DOI Number

Keywords: Clash of civilisations, two-nation theory, India, Pakistan, Kashmir, rivalry


Samuel P Huntington’s argued in 1993 that the nation-states will remain dominant actors in world affairs, yet the principal conflicts will occur between the nation-states composed of different civilisations. A civilisation is defined as the highest cultural grouping of peoples composed of a common language, history, customs, institutions, and, most importantly, religion. Western, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic[1]Orthodox, Latin American, and African civilisations exist in the contemporary world. For centuries, South Asia has experienced conflict between Muslim and Hindu civilisations, thereby, giving birth to two new states in 1947. Against this backdrop, this paper applied the concept of ‘clash of civilisations’ to elucidate the Indo-Pak conflict over Jammu and Kashmir. It argues that the dispute between India and Pakistan over Jammu and Kashmir is not politico-economic, rather it has civilisational dynamics. The ideological fault lines significantly contribute to the Indian brutality and suppression of Muslims in Kashmir as both Hindu and Muslim religions are opposite to each other.

First Published

March 25, 2020

How to Cite

Mehmood Hussain, Syeda Tranum Bashir, and Sumara Mehmood,” Indo-Pakistan Rivalry over Kashmir: A Clash of Civilisations?”Regional Studies 38, no.1 (Spring 2020):58-83,


Volume 38, Issue 1