Maida Farid

Ms Maida Farid is an Intern at the Institute of Regional Studies.

DOI: http://DOI Number

Keywords: Security dilemma, bilateral dispute, Pakistan, India, external actors, realism, liberalism


Ever since the independence of India and Pakistan, the relationship between the two countries has been marred by wars, cross-border skirmishes, and human rights violations in the Indian Illegally Occupied Jammu and Kashmir (IIOJK). The hostile relationship between the two nuclear powers is seen as a threat to regional security. Power politics and investment of both countries in enhancing their respective defence budgets have been the main underlying causes of the prevailing security dilemma between the two states. The security of one means insecurity for the other and this assumption is based on both conventional and non-conventional security threats. This paper intends to understand the concept of security dilemma in the context of India and Pakistan under the theoretical framework of realism and liberalism. In doing so, the paper aims to look into the threats posed by both countries and viable solutions necessary to mitigate the security dilemma. It also covers the role of externalities, i.e., the United Nations and the United States in dealing with the situation, particularly about the Kashmir dispute.

First Published

June 25, 2021

How to Cite

Maida Farid, “Pakistan-India Security Dilemma and the Role of Externalities: An Interplay of Realism and Liberalism,” Regional Studies 39, no.2 (Summer 2021): 15-29,


Volume 39, Issue 2