Syed Fraz Hussain Naqvi

Mr Syed Fraz Hussain Naqvi is an Assistant Research Officer at the Institute of Regional Studies, Islamabad.

DOI: http://DOI Number

Keywords: Quad 2.0, Indo-Israel, Middle East, security, multilateralism


In the contemporary international environment, the US has been exhausted financially in its prolonged wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Furthermore, the Afghan and Iraq debacles, i.e., the fall of Kabul and political instability in Iraq, have also cost the US its prestige. For its compensation, the US is now involved in consensus-based network arrangements which have two prominent features. First is the US attempt to enable its allies in economic and military domains to formulate their own regional security framework. This will help the US in minimizing its own war cost. Second is the shift from multilateralism to minilateralism (i.e., region specific) which will converge the threat perceptions of the US with that of the regional states towards framing the mutual threat or challenge. The US initiative in the Middle East, dubbed as Quad 2.0, is the practical manifestation of its aforementioned policy. Middle Eastern Quad, comprises of US, India, Israel, and the UAE is yet to get formal recognition, nevertheless, its anti-China outlook is apparent. For Pakistan, this development is of utmost attention for two reasons, i.e., Pakistan’s inherent interests in the Middle East and India’s participation in the Middle Eastern security framework. This paper attempts to explore the probability or improbability of Quad 2.0 and to analyse its possible implications on Pakistan through open source secondary research.

First Published

December 25, 2021

How to Cite

Syed Fraz Hussain Naqvi, “Prospects of Middle Eastern Quad and its implications for Pakistan,” Regional Studies 39, no.4 (Winter 2021): 47-61,


Volume 39, Issue 4