Shahid Ilyas

Mr Shahid Ilyas is Research Analyst at the Institute of Regional Studies, Islamabad.

DOI: http://DOI Number

Keywords: India, KSA, bilateral relations, visits, joint statements.


The paper aims to explore the fundamental elements determining the direction of India-Saudi Arabia relations in the 21st century. It is also an attempt to prove that relations between the two countries are determined, by and large, by realism, rather than cultural or religious affinities. In that regard, the paper has probed in some detail the history of bilateral relations between the two countries. Through the review of bilateral high-level visits and the resultant joint statements, memorandums of understanding, and joint declarations, an attempt is made to help readers see that the two countries are well on the path of an enduring strategic partnership, which encompasses determination to fight terrorism together, defence cooperation, synchronisation of the two countries’ economic visions, and cooperation in the fields of energy, manufacturing, education, culture, science, and so on. The paper seeks to add to the existing literature on the subject by helping policymakers understand the direction of the bilateral relationship between India and Saudi Arabia.

First Published

December 25, 2019

How to Cite

Shahid Ilyas, “The Evolving India-Saudi Arabia Bilateral Relationship in the 21st Century,” Regional Studies 37, no.4 (Winter 2019): 3-29,


Volume 37, Issue 4